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Friday
Mar182011

Omega-3 is Essential to Your Diet

Written by: Jaime Coffey Martinez MS, RD, Nutrition Coach, Weight Loss Specialist

The simple act of including a key nutrient in your diet can have a profoundly positive effect on your health.  Omega 3 fatty acids may be just that key nutrient.  Omega 3’s incredible anti-inflammatory health benefits have been making headlines for many years now, and falling short of a panacea, they may be the closest nutrient associated with a medical miracle. 

Omega 3s have been linked to reducing cardiovascular risk, improving cognitive brain function, decreasing inflammatory symptoms associated with autoimmune disorders, contributing anticancer benefits, and reducing depression.   

Why Fatty Acids Are Essential

Omega 3’s are essential fatty acids (EFA), or essential components of our diet because the body does not produce them on its own.  Similar to how the body needs vitamins and minerals to function, it also needs EFAs.  Omega 3’s are sometimes also referred to as “vitamin F”.[i] 

Both Omega 3 and Omega 6 are EFAs and are grouped under a larger classification of polyunsaturated fats.   Unlike Omega 3, Omega 6 EFAs are readily found in our diet through corn and soybean oils, but may trigger a potential rise in health complications, including inflammation, blood clots and insulin resistance. As inflammation increases, it can generate fat cells and weight gain.  Because the Standard American Diet (SAD) is so saturated in Omega 6 fatty acids, it may be one of the reasons obesity rates are rising.

Accordingly, it is recommended that we incorporate a better balance between Omega 3 and Omega 6 with a suggested 1 to 3 ratio. The SAD reflects current consumption closer to 1 to 30.

ALA vs. EPA and DHA

The Omega 3 family of fatty acids is found in both vegetable and fish sources. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is found in sources such as flax, walnuts, hemp, and canola oil as well as dark leafy green vegetables.  Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are found in animal dietary sources such as fish oil and sea life, including algae and krill.  While both vegetarian and animal sources are anti-inflammatory, the clinical benefits of Omega 3 EFA from EPA and DHA are found to be more potent and most beneficial.    

Benefits

Overall, Omega 3’s have broad anti-inflammatory benefits, yet the clinical evidence and benefits of EPA and DHA Omega 3 fatty acids is strongest and most widely studied in cardiovascular health.   Studies show Omega 3 benefits include reductions in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and C-reactive protein, which increases the risk of heart attack and stroke, plus an increase in HDL (good cholesterol).[ii],[iii],[iv] Omega 3’s from fish oil also appear to aid in lowering blood pressure, and the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) by slowing the development of plaque and blood clots that create blockage.

Fish oil has also been shown to increase the effectiveness of insulin and decrease insulin resistance, and may help prevent obesity by lowering hormones associated with obesity.

Powerful and widespread evidence also exists regarding the benefits of EPA and DHA on the brain. Healthy pregnancies and fetal cognitive brain development is associated with adequate maternal levels of DHA in the diet. Research in the areas of childhood to adult neuropsychiatric, psychological, and learning disorders, including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, autism, and Alzheimer’s, all have documented the benefits of including dietary sources of EPA and DHA.[v]

Additional research also supports possible benefits for those diagnosed with auto- immune disorders, such as rheumatology, where inflammation is a common theme.[vi] Research similarly supports benefits for those who suffer from inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., IBD, IBS, Crohn’s disease)[vii], for disorders of the eyes,[viii] and for the prevention of many cancers.[ix]

Diet and Supplementation:

While plant sources provide ALA Omega 3, the body’s ability to successfully convert it to the clinically proven benefits of EPA and DHA is an ongoing debate.

Eating enough fish to support a balanced ratio carries with it the concern about consuming toxins, such as harmful polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methyl mercury.  Deep cold water fish offers the highest amounts of EPA and DHA, yet one would have to have a minimum daily 3oz serving in order to provide levels of EPA and DHA found in high quality supplements.

Supplementation of Omega 3 is easy, affordable and relatively low risk.  There are, however, a couple of considerations before taking fish oil, such as an allergy to fish or vegetarian limitations.  Consult your physician if you are taking blood thinners.[x]

Aside from these scenarios, most everyone can benefit from supplementing their diet with Omega 3 supplements.  It is not harmful to our organs, there are limited drug-to-drug interactions, and toxicity from contaminants, mercury or PCB’s is unlikely when good quality supplements are used. 


 

[i] Tribole, Evelyn, MS RD The Ultimate Omega-3 Diet, New York McGraw Hill 2007

[ii] Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: A systematic review. Atherosclerosis. 2006 Nov;189(1):19-30.

[iii] Galli C, Risé P. Fish consumption, omega 3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. The science and the clinical trials. Nutr Health. 2009;20(1):11-20. Review.

[iv] Kelley DS, Siegel D, Fedor DM, Adkins Y, Mackey BE. DHA supplementation decreases serum C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in hypertriglyceridemic men. J Nutr. 2009 Mar;139(3):495-501.

[v] Frangou S, Lewis M, McCrone P et al. Efficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:46-50

[vi] Berbert AA, Kondo CR, Almendra CL et al. Supplementation of fish oil and olive oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition. 2005;21:131-6.

[vii] Belluzzi A, Boschi S, Brignola C, Munarini A, Cariani C, Miglio F. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(suppl):339S-342S.

[viii] Cho E, Hung S, Willet WC, Spiegelman D, Rimm EB, Seddon JM, et al. Prospective study of dietary fat and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(2):209-218.

[ix] Daniel CR, McCullough ML, Patel RC, Jacobs EJ, Flanders WD, Thun MJ, Calle EE. Dietary intake of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of colorectal cancer in a prospective cohort of U.S. men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Feb;18(2):516-25.

[x] Buckley MS, Goff AD, Knapp WE, et al. Fish oil interaction with warfarin. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:50-2.

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Reader Comments (2)

Not all Essential Fatty Acids (EFA's) are created equal. In other words, EFA's are not just EFA's. There are two forms of EFA's: Parent form and derivatives.

Majority of foods and supplements containing EFA's (Essential Fatty Acids) are adulterated (processed) derivatives (EPA, DHA, GLA).

Whole and unadulterated essential fatty acids are called Parent Esstential Oils (PEO's). PEO's consist of parent omega-6 (LA) and parent omega-3 (ALA). When PEO's are consumed, your body converts a small percentage of them in derivatives only as needed.

It is popularly known that we do get a majority of our omega-6 from our diet. We do. HOWEVER, what is overlooked is that the omega-6 in our diet are omega-6 derivatives (adulterated) due to overly processed foods.

September 7, 2011 | Unregistered CommenterNate McLagan
December 1, 2011 | Unregistered Commenterbaby

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